Publications: Academic Articles and Book Chapters
Protest and Partnership: Case Studies of Indigenous Peoples, Consultation and Engagement, and Resource Development in Canada (with Brendan Boyd). Forthcoming (2024), University of Calgary Press.
Co-edited book exploring what leads to the establishment of a mutually beneficial partnership and why do many resource development projects result in protests or legal challenges from Indigenous communities. Contributors include Brendan Boyd, Kirk Cameron, Sophie Lorefice, L. Jane McMillan, Thierry Rodon, Gabrielle Slowey, and Stephen Wyatt.
Intro (with Brendan Boyd)
Chapter 2: Indigenous, Industry and Government Perspectives on Consultation in Resource Development (with Brendan Boyd and Sophie Lorefice)
"Geopolitical Implications of the EU’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism" (with Alaz Munzur and Katharina Koch). 2023. Chapter 9 in Changing the Paradigm of Energy Geopolitics: Security, Resources and Pathways in Light of Global Challenges, João Simões, Francisco Leandro, Eduardo Caetano de Sousa and Roopinder Oberoi, eds. Peter Lang Publishers. ISBN: 9781433191350.
We conceptualize the CBAM as an instrument of normative power whereby the EU attempts to generate policy reforms in third countries by imposing carbon tariffs and related incentives. We investigate how the draft CBAM regulation was received by public and private stakeholders in China, Russia and Turkey, the main exporters to the EU in the sectors covered by the CBAM.
Original submitted version (accepted manuscript available upon request)
"Carbon Pricing Costs for Households and the Progressivity of Revenue Recycling Options in Canada" (with Brett Dolter and Kent Fellows). 2023. Canadian Public Policy 49(1), 13-45.
We provide detailed and comprehensive estimates of potential carbon tax costs for Canadian households, by province and income quintile, and explore revenue recycling options.
Smart Prosperity Institute Clean Economy Working Paper 21-06 (June 2021 version)
“An Analysis of Industrial Policy Mechanisms to Support Commercial Deployment of Bitumen Partial Upgrading in Alberta” (with G. Kent Fellows and Alaz Munzur). 2023. Energies 16(6), 2670.
We use a stylized theoretical model of capacity investment to explore the expected effect of different policy supports on firms’ decision to invest in a partial upgrading facility integrated with an existing oil sands extraction facility. We evaluate 10 potential policy interventions and their expected effect on investment in partial upgrading.
“The Challenge of Border Carbon Adjustments as a Mechanism for Climate Clubs.” 2023. PLOS Climate 2(2).
In this short opinion piece, I explore the challenges of using a border carbon adjustment, such as the European Union's carbon border adjustment mechanism, to enforce the G7 climate club.
"Production Controls in Heavy Oil and Bitumen Markets: Surplus Transfer Due to Alberta’s Curtailment Policy" (with Brandon Schaufele). 2023. Energies 16(3): 1389.
We measure the short-run economic impact of Alberta’s 2012-2020 oil curtailment policy. The curtailment policy led to an estimated increase in producer operating income of $658 million per month, while consumers, predominantly refiners in the US Midwest, lost economic benefits equal to $763 million per month.
“If It Matters, Measure It: A Review of Methane Sources and Mitigation Policy in Canada” (with Sarah Dobson and Victoria Goodday). 2023. International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics 16(3-4): 309-429.
We review the sources of methane emissions in Canada, policies in place, and mitigation options for each source. Three primary sectors account for 96 per cent of Canada’s methane emissions: oil and gas, agriculture, and waste. In a best case scenario, direct regulatory coverage is approximately 54 per cent of methane emissions, with indirect regulatory coverage via offset markets accounting for 18 per cent. However, data gaps and policy exemptions and gaps make this measure of potential coverage an overestimate. Methane emissions management for all sectors is hindered by emissions measurement challenges.
Posted on SSRN
September 2021 version
"A Socio-economic Review of the Impacts of Northwest Territories’ Inuvik to Tuktoyaktuk Highway 10" (with Kent Fellows and Alaz Munzur). 2022. Canadian Journal of Regional Science 45(3): 137-149.
We project and investigate the likely socio-economic effects on the community of Tuktoyaktuk from completion of the all-season Highway 10 (the Inuvik-Tuktoyaktuk Highway) in Northwest Territories, Canada. Prior to the highway’s completion, Tuktoyaktuk was connected to the rest of Canada by air, winter road, and the Mackenzie River in summer. We find a statistically strong relationship between remoteness and incomes, suggesting that reduced remoteness from completion of Highway 10 increased incomes.
"Optimal Routing of Wide Multi-Modal Energy and Infrastructure Corridors" (with Mehdi Salamati, Xin Wang, and Hamidreza Zareipour). 2022. International Journal of Geo-Information 11(8): 434.
A multi-modal corridor accommodates multiple modes of energy and transportation infrastructure within the same right-of-way. Existing literature on corridor routing in raster space often focuses on one mode with no consideration of the width, an unrealistic assumption. We develop two multi-modal wide-corridor routing methods using raster data. The first method weights and aggregates the cost rasters of all modes into a single composite on which a wide LCP is found. The second method uses a directed transformed graph, calculating the weight of each edge using layers of cost data based on edge direction, the desired widths, and arrangement of the modes. Using synthetic datasets we show superior performance of the second method in (1) finding a multi-modal corridor over the first method, and (2) finding a single-modal corridor when compared to existing methods.
“Emissions Markets and International Trade.” 2022. Invited chapter in Energy and Geostrategy, 9th Edition. Ministerio De Defensa Press, Spain.
Discusses the evolution of emissions markets and how international trade can affect domestic climate policy.
"Alberta in Canada’s Net Zero Future: Seizing Opportunities While Adapting to Change" (with Chris Bataille, Sarah Dobson and Anna Kanduth). 2021. Invited chapter in Alberta’s Economic and Fiscal Future. Robert Mansell and Ken McKenzie, eds. The School of Public Policy, University of Calgary.
We explore what a net zero emissions policy means for Alberta, outlining transition pathways for Alberta along Canada’s net zero pathways, and discuss the challenges and opportunities for Alberta on each of these fronts.
"Fiscal integration with internal trade: Quantifying the effects of federal transfers in Canada" (with Trevor Tombe). 2021. Canadian Journal of Economics 54(2), 522-556. Formerly “What's Inside Counts: Migration, Taxes, and the Internal Gains from Trade”
Costs to trade between regions of Canada are large. We uncover important effects of fiscal transfers on trade flows, specialization patterns, and the gains from trade. In addition, we demonstrate that the effect of transfers on migration is significantly amplified by trade and therefore increases the potentially negative effect of transfers on aggregate GDP and productivity.
“Forks in the Road: Energy Policies in Canada and the US since the Shale Revolution” (with J-S Rioux). 2020. American Review of Canadian Studies 50(1), 66-85.
We examine policy responses in Canada and the US to the shale revolution and changing North American oil and gas markets. We outline the effect of the shale revolution on North American oil and gas markets, and how the subsequent energy policy choices in each country changed the relationship between Canada and the US. In the US, increasing production combined with the policy imperative of maintaining energy security led to less support for Canadian supply, and the subsequent on-off-on saga of the Keystone XL pipeline. In Canada, growing concern about the balance between the environment and the economy led to stalled pipeline development and reform of regulatory systems, problems exacerbated by the new policy direction in the US.
"Carbon Pricing in a Federal State: The Case of Canada." 2020. ifo DICE Report - Journal for Institutional Comparisons. 18(1), 13-19
This short paper reviews the evolution of emissions pricing policies in Canada, and the political changes that led to implementation and political retreat from emissions pricing. Electoral cycles in Canada created a policy window for coordinated and substantive policy development on emissions pricing, relying on pre-existing provincial policies as building blocks for federal policy.
“Canada’s Role in Global Energy Markets.” 2019. Invited chapter in Energy and Geostrategy, 6th Edition.
Increasing use of hydraulic fracturing and the subsequent rise of shale and tight oil and natural gas production has transformed North American energy markets. These changes have been particularly disruptive for Canada, as the United States is its primary export market and these changes have disrupted historical trade flows. Compounding the effects of market changes are a set of energy and environmental policy changes enacted by federal and provincial governments in Canada, as well as rising domestic opposition to energy development. This chapter explores the effects of these changes on Canadian oil and gas markets and production, and describes the impact on Canada’s role in global energy markets.
"Environmental Policy Transformations and Canada at 150.” 2019. Invited chapter in Policy Transformation in Canada: Is Past Prologue?, Peter John Loewen, Carolyn Hughes Tuohy, Andrew Potter and Sophie Borwein, eds.
I describe the challenges associated with successful implementation of climate policy in Canada: policy to address climate change is a collective action problem; benefits and costs are still uncertain; meeting Canada's 2030 emissions targets will require incurring significant economic costs; the distribution of burden across provinces and territories; competitiveness impacts and carbon leakage in the absence of policy action from other countries; and Canada's relatively small contributions to global emissions.
"Environmental Policy and Misallocation: The Productivity Effect of Intensity Standards" (with Trevor Tombe). 2015. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 72: 137-163, July .
We compare energy taxes with intensity standards in the context of firms with market power and heterogeneous productivity in multiple industries. We find intensity standards create distortions between firms that lower productivity; taxes avoid these distortions and are therefore superior. We investigate means to mitigate the negative consequences of intensity standards.